Charles-Geneviève-Louis-Auguste-André-Timothée Éon de Beaumont (1728 - 1810)

Chevalier d'Eon
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Charles-Geneviève-Louis-Auguste-André-Timothée Éon de Beaumont (1728 - 1810), usually known as the Chevalier d'Eon was a French diplomat, soldier and Freemason who lived the first half of his life as a man and the second half as a woman.

Early life

D'Eon Beaumont was born in Tonnerre, France on October 5, 1728. His father, Louis d'Eon de Beaumont, was an attorney and his mother, Françoise de Chavanson, was a noblewoman. Most of what we know about d'Eon's early life comes from his biography and its reliability is questionable. He later claimed that he had been born a girl but that he was raised as a boy because her father could inherit his in-laws only if he would have a son.

D'Eon excelled in school and graduated 1749 from College Mazarin in Paris. He worked as a secretary of the administrator of the fiscal department and as a royal censor.

D'Eon as a spy

In 1756 d'Eon joined the secret network of spies that worked only for Louis XV. The king sent him on a secret mission to Russia in order to meet Empress Elizabeth and intrigue with the pro-French faction against the Austrians. Later tales claim that he disguised himself as a lady Lia de Beaumont to do so and became a maid of honour to the Empress. D'Eon's career in Russia is the subject of one of Valentin Pikul's novels.

In 1761 d'Eon returned to France. The next year he became a captain of dragoons under the Marshal de Broglie and fought in the latter stages of the Seven Years' War. He was wounded and received a Cross of Saint-Louis, which gave him the rank of chevalier.

In 1763 d'Eon became plenipotentiary minister in London and spied for the king. He collected information for a potential invasion. He formed connections with English nobility by sending them the produce of his own vineyards. When he was about to lose the post of plenipotentiary, he complained, and eventually decided to disobey orders to return to France. In his letter to the king, he claimed that the new ambassador had tried to drug him. In 1764 he published most of the secret diplomatic correspondence about his recall.

In 1766 Louis XV granted him a pension for his services and gave him a 12.000-livre annuity. He continued to work as a spy, but he lived in political exile in London.

D'Eon as a lady

Despite the fact that d'Eon wore his dragoon's uniform all the time, there were rumors that he was actually a woman. A betting pool in was started on the London Stock Exchange regarding his gender. In 1771, after the death of Louis XV, d'Eon tried to negotiate his return. He also claimed that physically he was not a man, but a woman, and demanded that the government recognize him as a woman. King Louis XVI and his court complied and demanded that he wear women's clothing. D'Eon agreed, especially when the king granted funds for a new wardrobe. In 1777 d'Eon returned to France, and afterwards lived as a woman.

When France began to help the rebels during the American War of Independence, d'Eon asked to be able to join French troops in America. He was jailed below the castle of Dijon for 19 days, and spent the following six years with his mother in Tonnerre.

In 1779 Beaumont published his memoirs La Vie Militaire, politique, et privée de Mademoiselle d'Eon. They were ghostwritten by a friend named La Fortelle, and are probably embellished.

D'Eon returned to England in 1785. He lost his pension after the French Revolution and had to sell his library. In 1792 he sent a letter to the French National Assembly, offering to lead a division of women soldiers against Austria, but the offer was rebuffed. He participated in fencing tournaments until he was seriously wounded, in 1796. In 1805 he signed a contract for an autobiography, but the book was never published. He spent his last years with a widow, Mrs. Cole.

Chevalier d'Eon died on May 21, 1810, in London. Doctors who examined him after death discovered that his body was anatomically male.

The term Eonism was coined to refer to similar cases of transgender behavior, but is now little used because of its ambiguity. d.jpg
Detail from a mezzo-tint print dated June 25, 1771, one of many jests on Freemasonry (AQC, XVI, 1903). This colourized version appeared in the August 2000 edition of BBC History
Le Chevalier D'Eon


洗礼名Charles-Geneviève-Louis-Auguste-André-Timothée éon de Beaumont
便于记忆,一般采用简写的Charles d'Eon de Beaumont,暂译作查尔斯?迪昂??博蒙

迪昂的父亲路易(Louis d'Eon de Beaumont)是一位驻巴黎督察团的代表律师
而他的母亲则是来自古老且富甲一方的贵族家庭千金小姐弗兰索瓦兹(Fran?oise de Chavanson)

据迪昂留下的回忆录所言,他曾与罗什福尔(Rochefort) 伯爵夫人关系亲密并从她那里获得了大量豪华礼服的友情赞助,愉快的参加了多场宫廷舞会。所以年少的他一度完全将自己视作女性,身着华美盛装频繁出入巴黎社交界,且以此为乐

迪昂获得法学博士学位从巴黎马萨琳学院(College Mazarin) 毕业后的1749年,开始在巴黎财长身边担任秘书,负责处理政府金融报告,工作性质类似皇家审查员。24岁时发表了一篇关于法国金融财政的论文,在学术界引起很大震动,从而受到国王路易十五的关注,起初是打算重用他为财政大臣


1755年,路易十五设立了完全效忠于他个人的秘密外交机关「王の機密局」(The King's Psalms),网罗了一批秘使、间谍、心腹还有影武者,迪昂当即被拉入了伙
与迪昂同行的是假扮英格兰皮草商的骑士道格拉斯(Chevalier Douglas),迪昂放弃了伪装成道格拉斯仆人的计划而化妆成他的侄女,化名莉亚??博蒙(Lia de Beaumont),借遵从医嘱外出旅行为幌子向圣彼得堡进发。出发前,路易十五交给迪昂一本特别装订版的孟斯鸠(Baron de Montesquieu)《论法的精神》(The Spirit of Laws),其中就有夹层藏着给女皇的亲笔秘函

道格拉斯当即造访了英国大使威廉姆斯(Williams) 希望获得宫廷觐见,却久未回音,求助于瑞典和奥地利大使也依然没有答复。与此同时,热衷英俄结盟的俄罗斯宰相别斯图热夫(Бестужев) 发现了道格拉斯假扮英格兰皮草商的真相,惊惶的道格拉斯只得火速逃往边境
而女版迪昂的莉亚??博蒙则神一般的拉拢到与别斯图热夫不共戴天的政敌,副宰相沃龙佐夫大公(Михаи?л Илларио?нович Воронцо?в)。在沃龙佐夫的协助下,后门洞开,别说是宫廷觐见,连女皇的私人房间都能进出。再加上巧舌如簧谈吐不凡,莉亚以女皇的侍读、法语教师和密友的身份往来穿梭于寝室之间,隐藏在书中的法俄同盟策划案也成功避开别斯图热夫的注意,送达到女皇手中。女皇被这位奇妙的美貌女特使迷得七荤八素,想都没想就塞过去一封给路易十五的亲笔回信

1757年,法俄正式重建了外交关系——MISSION COMPLETE!

回国后,「剣の達人」的迪昂被任命为龙骑兵连队(The elite Dragoons) 队长,还得到3000法郎的年俸

1756年,欧洲七年战争(Seven Years'War) 爆发,为争夺殖民领地,法国同俄国、奥地利结盟对抗英国和普鲁士。迪昂也参加了战争,主管军事情报,他剑术超群战功卓著,只是头部和腿部受了轻伤
1762年,战争后期,俄国宫廷政变,新女皇叶卡捷琳娜登基后宣布先前的法俄同盟无效,失去后援的法军在战场上一败涂地,路易十五慌忙派出迪昂为全权公使出访英国调停战事。迪昂用驻英大使尼维奈尔(Nivernais) 公爵秘书的身份做掩护,暗地里窃取了英王乔治三世的军事机密,当作签署停战协议的筹码
1763年,战争结束,因作战勇猛加上对法俄、法英间外交的贡献,虽然最后《巴黎和约》造成法国殖民领地大减,路易十五人望大跌,但时年35岁的迪昂还是获得了圣路易十字勋章的嘉奖,这枚勋章是他成为圣路易皇家骑士团骑士的委任状,也是被正式称作“骑士迪昂” 的开始

迪昂的功绩引起了路易十五的情人,素有「影の女帝」之称的革新派贵族代表蓬皮杜侯爵夫人(Madame de Pompadour) 的强烈嫉妒。在路易十五赐予迪昂内阁大臣官位的同时,这种嫉妒几乎达到了憎恶的顶点,她不惜安排迪昂的死敌格瑞希(Gersii) 伯爵出任他的上司,打压之下再极尽中伤诽谤之能事。1763年2月迪昂以驻英大使代理的身份退出法国宫廷,接受了刺探英伦海峡防卫以便日后发动战争的隐秘任务


1763年10月,迪昂受令必须返回法国,深知自己处境的他拒绝回国,迫不得已只能用国家机密要挟路易十五,为此也不得不处处提防路易十五派来暗杀他的各路间谍。1764年迪昂出版了自己的回忆录 Lettres, mémoires, et négociations particuliéres,英国各界普遍对他非常欣赏。由于这本书中并未涉及对英进攻计划一事,姑且让内忧外患的法王松了口气。1766年,路易十五撑不下去决定暂时妥协,授予迪昂一笔每年12000法郎的退休金,作为对其外交、军事事业的肯定,并允许他留在英国。迪昂得以安心的在伦敦生活,除继续搜集任务情报外,还花费了大量时间满足自己对书的喜好,他在伦敦的私人图书馆共有6000本藏书和500份罕见的原稿


1774年,路易十五得天花去世,机密局随之不复存在。新王路易十六对外交兴趣寡然,取消了进攻计划之余派遣剧作家博马舍(Pierre Beaumarchais) 前来伦敦斡旋,最后许诺只要迪昂不公开国家机密,就既往不咎欢迎他回到法国——急切盼望回国的迪昂被社会传言纠缠得疲惫不堪,索性在那时做出了“我是女人”的回应,还找了一系列家庭原因为论据,初现其女性人格确立的雏形。只是这下更加跳进黄河也洗不清,引得博马舍坚信迪昂女性说,向他求婚……

事隔14年终于回到祖国的迪昂被路易十六算计,1777年8月29日,无聊又无耻的路易十六命令迪昂必须脱去龙骑兵制服终身女装,还在11月21日为他举办了永久女性的仪式……时年22岁的年轻王妃玛丽?安托瓦内特(Marie Antoinette) 主动要求提供女装,因为她听到好友勃利涅库伯爵夫人(Yolande Martine Gabrielle de Polastron) 谈论迪昂时称“哀伤的女骑士”,而将他当成女性起了同情心


因为机密局已成过去式,迪昂只有不断出入沙龙参加剑术比赛赚取外快。1787年4月,他与伦敦最强剑士圣?乔治(Saint Georges) 的公开决斗在世间传为佳话。圣?乔治当时是身心皆处于颠峰期的现役近卫骑兵,59岁的迪昂挑战年轻天才剑士这一举动普遍不为人们所看好。结果,坚持穿着女装的迪昂即便费力的提着裙子,也在最后以七连突刺大败圣?乔治……英国人民震惊了,一度称他为欧罗巴剑圣,这光景——请自行想像FSS的剑圣慧伽

1789年,法国大革命爆发,迪昂得到英国的政治庇护,在伦敦长期留守,时而男装时而女装的生活着。他烦闷于民众发疯一样的猎奇心理,一直躲在自己的小公寓里。1792年5月,64岁的迪昂曾致信立法议会请求复归军职,无人理睬。革命造成整个法国时局大变动,翌年路易十六被处死后,地方小贵族把同样贵族出身的迪昂在法国的所有财产没收了。失去了退休金保障又无法回到祖国的迪昂生活日益贫困,更因欠债被关了拘留所,潦倒的他不得不卖掉圣路易十字勋章和路易十五的鼻炎壶,还有自己钟爱的藏书,这对爱书的迪昂来说无疑比死还要难受。到了最后,一切皆被变卖,唯有古罗马诗人荷拉斯(Quintus Horatius Elaccus) 的《颂歌集》(Odes) 实在舍不得才被留下。这一期间,大众舆论依旧针对他的性别冷嘲热讽……

他死后,对赌局仍心存疑虑的人们委托外科医生进行了遗体解剖,结论——真正的 男性


不着寸缕 自天空降生
如今又身无一物 长眠墓碑之下……
总而言之 活在人世
我这一生既未曾得到 也未曾失去……





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